Voip Think- Voice over IP - Asterisk and SER - SIP IAX and H323

3CX VoIP Phone System, IP PBX for Windows
3CX PBX and Phone System for Windows
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    NAT

    NAT (network address translation)
    In computer networking, network address translation (NAT, also known as network masquerading or IP-masquerading) is a technique in which the source and/or destination addresses of IP packets are rewritten as they pass through a router or firewall. It is most commonly used to enable multiple hosts on a private network to access the Internet using a single public IP address. According to specifications, routers should not act in this way, but it is a convenient and widely-used technique. There are the following NAT files.

    • Full cone NAT: NAT where all requests from the same internal IP address and port are mapped to the same external IP address and port. Furthermore, any external host can send a packet to the internal host, by sending a packet to the mapped external address. It is also known as "one-to-one NAT".
    • Restricted cone NAT: NAT where all requests from the same internal IP address and port are mapped to the same external IP address and port. Unlike a full cone NAT , an external host (with IP address X) can send a packet to the internal host only if the internal host had previously sent a packet to IP address X
    • Port restricted cone NAT: is like a restricted cone NAT, but the restriction includes port numbers . Specifically, an external host can send a packet , with source IP address X and source port P, to the internal host only if the internal host had previously sent a packet to IP address X and port P.
    • Symmetric NAT: is a NAT where all requests from the same internal IP address and port to a specific destination IP address and port are mapped to the same external source IP address and port. If the same internal host sends a packet with the same source address and port to a different destination, a different mapping is used. Furthermore, only the external host that receives a packet can send a UDP packet back to the internal host.
     

     
     
     
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